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Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi)
Alkanet (Anchusa arvensis), mostly used as a natural coloring
Allspice (Pimenta dioica) - Small brown berry; flavour resembles blend of cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg - uses include sausages and braised meats, poached fish, stewed fruits, pies and puddings
Amchur - mango powder (Mangifera)
Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
Anise (Pimpinella anisum) - small seed, licorice flavour - uses include cookies, pastries and bread.
Aniseed myrtle (Syzygium anisatum)
Annatto (Bixa orellana L.)
Apple mint (Mentha suaveolens)
Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris)
Asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida) - Asafoetida has a pungent garlic smell when raw, but in cooked dishes, it delivers a smooth flavor, reminiscent of leeks - uses include many Indian dishes especially vegetarian and lentil dishes.
Calumba (Jateorhiza calumba)
Cananga Also known as 'Kenanga' in Malaysia.
Caper (Capparis spinosa)
Caraway Seeds - dark brown, curved seeds; familiar rye bread seasoning - uses include Rye bread, cabbage, sauerkraut, pork, cheese spreads, eastern European dishes
Cardamom - TIny brown seeds inside white or green pods; sweet and aromatic, expensive - uses include pickling, Danish pastries, curries
Cayenne pepper - ground form of hot red pepper; looks like paprika but is very hot - uses include small amounts in many sauces, soups, meat, fish, egg and cheese dishes
Celastrus paniculatus (peng)
Celery seed - tiny brown seeds with strong celery flavour - uses include salad, coleslaw, salad dressings, tomato products
Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) - a herb with mild flavour of parsely and tarragon - uses include soups, salads, sauces, egg and cheese dishes
Chilli pepper/powder - blend of spices including cumin, chilli peppers, oregano garlic - uses include chilli and Mexican dishes, egg dishes, appetizers, ground meat
Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) - grass like herb with onion flavour - uses include salads, egg and cheese dishes, fish, soups
Cicely (Myrrhis odorata)
Cilantro (fresh Coriander, chinese parsley) (Coriandrum sativum) - the plant that produces corriander seeds; delicate texture; assertive, herbaceous aroma and flavour. Leaves resembles flat parsley - widely used in Asian and Southwestern cooking and in dishes with various ethnic influences
Cinnamon (and Cassia) - aromatic bark of cinnamon or cassia trees - uses include pastries, breads, desserts, cooked fruits, ham, sweet potatoes, hot beverages
Cinnamon Myrtle (Backhousia myrtifolia)
Clary (Salvia sclarea)
Cloves - dried flower buds of a tropical tree; pungent sweet flavour - whole cloves are used in marinades, stocks, sauces, braised meats, ham, pickling. Ground cloves are used in cakes, pastries, fruits
Coriander - round light brown, hallow seed, slightly sweet, musty flavour - uses include pickling, sausage, pork, curried dishes, gingerbread
Costmary (Tanacetum balsamita)
Cow Parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris)
Cowslip (Primula veris)
Cramp Bark (Viburnum opulus)
Cuban Oregano (Plectranthus amboinicus)
Cubeb pepper (Piper cubeba)
Culantro (Eryngium foetidum)
Cumin Seed - small seed resembling carraway, but lighter in colour - is an ingredient of curry and chilli powders; sausages and meat; egg and cheese dishes
Curry Powder - A mixture of 15 to 20 spices including red pepper, tumeric, cumin, corriander, ginger, cloves, cinnamon, black pepper; different brands vary greatly in flavour and hotness - used in curried dishes, eggs, vegetables, fish, soups, rice.
Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii)
Damiana (Turnera aphrodisiaca, T. diffusa)
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)
Devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens)
Dill (Anethum graveolens) - herb and seed with familiar 'dill pickle' flavour; seed is more pungent than the herb - seeds are used in pickling, sauerkraut, soups and the herb is used in salads, cheese dishes, fish and shellfish, some vegetables
Dorrigo Pepper (Tasmannia stipitata)
Epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides) - a pungent herb with coarse textured leaves - used in Mexican cooking; often cooked with beans
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) - greenish-brown seeds similar in flavour to anise, but larger size - used in Italian sausage, tomato sauce, fish
Fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda)
French sorrel (Rumex scutatus)
Garlic - strong, aromatic member of onion family; fresh bulbs composed of many small cloves - used in a wide variety of foods
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) - light brown, knobby root of ginger plant - used in baked goods and desserts, fruits, curried dishes, braised meats. Is used fresh in Chinese and other oriental dishes
Ginseng, Siberian (Eleutherococcus senticosus)
Goat's rue (Galega officinalis)
Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta)
Grains of Selim (Xylopia aethiopica)
Grape seed extract
Ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea)
Gypsywort (Lycopus europaeus)
Herbes de Provence
Hops, the female flower cones of hop (Humulus lupulus)
Horsetail (Equisetum telmateia)
Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum)
Joe Pye weed (Gravelroot)
John the Conqueror
Juniper Berries - slightly soft, purple berries with 'piney' flavour; principle flavouring of Gin - used in marinades, game dishes, sauerkraut
Kaffir Lime Leaves (Citrus hystrix, C. papedia)
Lady's Bedstraw (Galium verum)
Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla)
Lavender (Lavandula spp.)
Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis)
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, C. flexuosus, and other species) - a tropical grass with a slightly bulbous base and an aroma of lemon - used in southeast Asian dishes and in dishes influenced by Asian cuisine.
Lemon Ironbark (Eucalyptus staigeriana)
Lemon Myrtle (Backhousia citriodora)
Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora)
Licorice - adaptogen
Lovage (Levisticum officinale)
Mace - orange outer covering of nutmeg; similar flavour but milder - used in baked goods, desserts, fruits, sausages, pork, fish, spinach, squash, other vegetables
Manchurian Thorn Tree (Aralia manchurica)
Marjoram (Origanum majorana) - grey-green herb with pleasant aroma and slightly minty flavour. Similar to oregano but milder - used in Pates and ground meats, braised meats, sauces, roast lamb, poultry and poultry stuffings
Marrubium vulgare (white horehound)
Marsh Labrador Tea
Meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris)
Melegueta pepper ( Aframomum melegueta)
Mexican pepperleaf (Piper auritum)
Mint (Mentha spp.) - aromatic herb with familiar cool flavour; two varieties: spearmint and peppermint - used in lamb, fruits, tea and fruit beverages, peas, carrots, potatoes.
Milk thistle (Silybum)
Bergamot (Monarda didyma)
Mullein (Verbascum thapsus)
Murraya koenigii (Curry Tree)
Mustard seed - very pungent seed in two varieties: white or yellow, and brown which is stronger - used in cheese and egg dishes, pickling, meats, sauces and gravys.
Nigella sativa (Kalonji, Black caraway)
Nutmeg - sweet aromatic kernel of nutmeg fruit - used in soups, cream sauces, chicken, veal, many vegetables (spinach, mushrooms, squash, potatoes), desserts, custards, breads, pastries
Oenothera (Oenothera biennis et al)
Olida (Eucalyptus olida)
Oregano (Origanum vulgare, O. heracleoticum, and other species) - pungent herb known as the 'pizza herb' - used in Italian and Mexican dishes, tomato products
Olive Leaf (used in tea and as herbal supplement)
Paprika - ground form of a dried, sweet red pepper. Spanish variety is brighter in colour, mild in flavour; Hungarian is darker and more pungent - Spanish variety is used primarily as a garnish on light-coloured foods whilst the Hungarian variety is used in goulash, braised meats and poultry, sauces
Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) - the most widely used herb. Dark green curly or flat leaves with delicate sweet flavour - used in almost all foods
Passion Flower (Passiflora)
Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegoides)
Pepper (black, white, and green) - small black, creamy white or green hard berry. Pungent flavour and aroma - most widely used spice.
Peng (Celastrus paniculatus)
Peppermint (Mentha piperata)
Peppermint Gum (Eucalyptus dives)
Poppy seed - tiny blue-black seeds with faint but distinctive flavour - used as a garnish for breads and rolls, buttered noodles. Ground seeds are used in pastry fillings.
Primrose (Primula vulgaris)
Ramsons (wood garlic, Allium ursinum)
Riberry (Syzygium luehmannii)
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) - light green leaves resembling pine needles - used in lamb, braised meats and poultry, soups, tomato and meat sauces.
Rowan berries (Sorbus aucuparia)
Saffron - red stigma of saffron crocus. Gives bright yellow colour to foods. Mild distinctive flavour, very expensive - should be steeped in hot liquid before use. Rice dishes, poultry and seafoods, bouillabaisse, baked goods.
Sage (Salvia officinalis) - pungent grey-green herb with fuzzy leaves - used in pork, poultry, stuffings, sausage, beans, tomatoes
St John's Wort (Hypericum)
Salad Burnet (Sanguisorba minor)
Salvia (clary and sage)
Savory - fragrant herb of mint family; summer savory is preferred to winter - used in many meat, poultry, fish, egg and vegetable dishes.
Scutellaria costaricana (skullcap)
Sesame seed - small yellowish seed with nutlike taste. Familiar hamburger bun garnish. High oil content - used as bread and roll garnish and oil is used in many asian dishes.
Sheep's sorrel (Rumex acetosella)
Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus)
Sichuan pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans) - a.k.a Chinese Prickly-ash; 花椒 [huājiāo] - brown seed pod, usually partially opened; spicy, peppery flavour but unrelated to black peppercorns - used in Chinese and other Asian dishes; spicy meat and poultry dishes.
Siraitia grosvenorii (luohanguo)]]
Sloe berries (Prunus spinosus)
Sorrel (Rumex acetosa, R. acetosella, R. scutatus)
Star anise - dried, star-shaped seed pod, with an anise-like flavour (but unrelated to anise) but more aromatic - used primarily to flavour stewed or braised Chinese dishes.
Strawberry leaves (Fragaria)
Suma (Pfaffia paniculata)
Summer savory (Satureja hortensis)
Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata)
Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) - delicate green herb with flavour that is both minty and licorice-like - used in Berarnaise sauce, tarragon vinegar, chicken, fish, salads and dressings, eggs
Tea (Camellia sinensis)
Thyme - tiny brownish green leaves; very aromatic - one of the most important and versitile of herbs; stocks, soups, sauces, meats, poultry, tomatoes.
Tormentil (Potentilla erecta)
Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum)
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) - intense yellow fruit of ginger family; mild but distinctively peppery flavour - a basic ingredient of curry powder, pickles, relishes, salads, eggs, rice
Uva ursi (bearberry)
Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia)
Vietnamese Coriander (Persicaria odorata)
Wasabi (Wasabia japonica)
Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquatica)
Winter savory (Satureja montana)
Witch Hazel (Hamamelis)
Yarrow, (Alchemilla millefolium)
List of culinary herbs and spices - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. . Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_spices.
All information quoted directly.